Cumulative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Viremia Is Associated With Increased Risk of Multimorbidity Among US Women With HIV, 1997-2019
Morton, Z, et al.
Background: To evaluate the effect of cumulative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viremia on aging-related multimorbidity among women with HIV (WWH), we analyzed data collected prospectively among women who achieved viral suppression after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (1997-2019).
Methods: We included WWH with ≥2 plasma HIV-1 viral loads (VL) <200 copies/mL within a 2-year period (baseline) following self-reported ART use. Primary outcome was multimorbidity (≥2 nonacquired immune deficiency syndrome comorbidities [NACM] of 5 total assessed). The trapezoidal rule calculated viremia copy-years (VCY) as area-under-the-VL-curve. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association of time-updated cumulative VCY with incident multimorbidity and with incidence of each NACM, adjusting for important covariates (eg, age, CD4 count, etc).
Results: Eight hundred six WWH contributed 6368 women-years, with median 12 (Q1-Q3, 7-23) VL per participant. At baseline, median age was 39 years, 56% were Black, and median CD4 was 534 cells/mm3. Median time-updated cumulative VCY was 5.4 (Q1-Q3, 4.7-6.9) log10 copy-years/mL. Of 211 (26%) WWH who developed multimorbidity, 162 (77%) had incident hypertension, 133 (63%) had dyslipidemia, 60 (28%) had diabetes, 52 (25%) had cardiovascular disease, and 32 (15%) had kidney disease. Compared with WWH who had time-updated cumulative VCY <5 log10, the adjusted hazard ratio of multimorbidity was 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.08) and 3.78 (95% CI, 2.17-6.58) for those with VCY 5-6.9 and ≥7 log10 copy-years/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Higher time-updated cumulative VCY increased the risk of each NACM.
Conclusions: Among ART-treated WWH, greater cumulative viremia increased the risk of multimorbidity and of developing each NACM, and hence this may be a prognostically useful biomarker for NACM risk assessment in this population.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.