Moving the Paradigm Forward for Prediction and Risk-Based Primary Prevention of Heart Failure in Special Populations
Everitt IK, Trinh KV, Underberg DL, Beach L, Khan SS
Purpose of review: Heart failure (HF) treatment paradigms increasingly recognize the importance of primary prevention. This review explores factors that enhance HF risk, summarizes evidence supporting the pharmacologic primary prevention of HF, and notes barriers to the implementation of primary prevention of HF with a focus on female and sexual and gender minority patients.
Recent findings: HF has pathophysiologic sex-specific distinctions, suggesting that sex-specific preventive strategies may be beneficial. Pharmacologic agents that have shown benefit in reducing the risk of HF address the pathobiology underpinning these sex-specific risk factors. The implementation of pharmacologic therapies for primary prevention of HF needs to consider a risk-based model. Current pharmacotherapies hold mechanistic promise for the primary prevention of HF in females and gender and sexual minorities, although research is needed to understand the specific populations most likely to benefit. There are significant systemic barriers to the equitable provision of HF primary prevention.