Durability of antibody response to vaccination and surrogate neutralization of emerging variants based on SARS-CoV-2 exposure history
Thomas W. McDade, Alexis R. Demonbreun, Amelia Sancilio, Brian Mustanski, Richard T. D’Aquila & Elizabeth M. McNally
Two-dose messenger RNA vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infection. However, the durability of protection is not known, nor is the effectiveness against emerging viral variants. Additionally, vaccine responses may differ based on prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure history. To investigate protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants we measured binding and neutralizing antibody responses following both vaccine doses. We document significant declines in antibody levels three months post-vaccination, and reduced neutralization of emerging variants, highlighting the need to identify correlates of clinical protection to inform the timing of and indications for booster vaccination.