Intersectional Minority Stress and Intimate Partner Violence: The Effects of Enacted Stigma on Racial Minority Youth Assigned Female at Birth
Gregory Swann, Christina Dyar, Louisa Baidoo, Shariell Crosby, Michael E. Newcomb & Sarah W. Whitton
Many sexual minority youth of color experience enacted stigma based on each of their minority identities. We examined whether experiences of racist discrimination and heterosexist microaggressions were associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among female-assigned at birth (FAB) sexual minority youth of color. Data were drawn from a larger study of FAB sexual and gender minority youth (FAB400; N = 488). We selected racial/ethnic minority participants who reported a sexual minority identity and reported a romantic relationship in the previous 6 months (N = 249). Negative binomial models were used to test for associations between enacted stigma (racial discrimination and heterosexist microaggressions) and IPV (psychological, physical, sexual, and sexual minority-specific) perpetration and victimization. When considered separately, both forms of enacted stigma was positively associated with perpetration and victimization across all four types of IPV. In multivariate models, racial discrimination and heterosexist microaggressions both had unique, additive effects on psychological IPV perpetration and physical- and sexual minority-specific IPV victimization. Only racial discrimination was uniquely associated with physical perpetration and psychological victimization. Only heterosexist microaggression was uniquely associated with sexual minority-specific perpetration and sexual IPV perpetration and victimization. Findings illustrate how enacted stigma based on each minority identity intersect to raise risk for IPV among sexual minority youth of color.